CYBERBULLYING VICTIMS RISK FACTORS
Cyberbullying is a type of aggression that takes place intentionally through different technological devices, specifically through cell phones and the Internet (Slonje & Smith, 2008). Bullying, on the other hand, is an aggressive act carried out deliberately by one or more persons against a victim who is less able to protect himself/herself (Slonje & Smith, 2008).
The main difference between both definitions is the method through which the aggressions occur, since in cyberbullying the main medium is the Internet (Lucas-Molina, et al., 2016). Furthermore, we find other characteristics in cyberbullying that differ from traditional bullying. Firstly, the scope and degree of dissemination that attacks carried out over the Internet have since, in a matter of minutes, the shared material can reach hundreds of people. Secondly, it is impossible to escape from the bullying acts. The victim is attacked in multiple settings, every day of the week, at any time of day. In traditional bullying, on the other hand, the aggressions are reduced to the time slots when the victim is at school. Finally, the third defining characteristic of cyberbullying is anonymity: While in traditional bullying the aggression occurs face to face, in cyberbullying the aggressor does not have to expose himself and can remain anonymous. Along with these characteristics, online bullying can be prolonged, which means that the victim is continuously reliving the situation of victimization (Buelga, et al., 2010).
Victims of cyberbullying have been indicated to have more problems with internalized feelings related to loneliness (Bonanno & Hymel, 2013), depression (Gradinger, Strohmeier & Spiel, 2009) and lack of self-esteem (Kowalski, Giumetti, Schroeder & Lattanner 2014). Additionally, there is a higher correlation with suffering from social anxiety and social isolation (Juvonen & Gross 200