D1.4 Report on case study results [1/2]
The aim of this deliverable is to analyze the information presented in the sentences of different countries. For that purpose, a systematic search of sentences was made in the different databases. The analysis of the sentences aimed to obtain information about the characteristics of offenders and victims, as well as to get an idea about the modus operandi used in each cybercrime.
The structure of the sections differs due to the findings from the different cybercrimes. In the section of online grooming, a separate analysis has been carried out for each area, since there are unique elements both in the type of information present in the sentences and in some of the characteristics of the sample. After the analysis by area, a joint analysis was carried out based on the overall sample.
In the section on cyberbullying, it was decided to take the sample as a whole to carry out a more complex statistical analysis, as no differences were observed in the samples that justified a separate analysis.
The section on human trafficking of minors for the purpose of sexual exploitation is limited to the East and West zones, since the partners from the North and South zones indicated that there were no sentences available on this subject in their respective geographical areas. Although in the Grant Agreement it was mentioned that just the East zone would be covered, the West zone was finally included as well, since sentences were obtained.
The number of pages per zone/crime was in most of the cases less than the number mentioned in the Grant Agreement, as the information content in the sentences in some regions was not too scarce to carry out a more in-depth analysis. The information presented in this deliverable will be reviewed by the SAB (Security Advisory Board) of the project to generate a public deliverable (D1.5).
Both qualitative and quantitative analysis were conducted extracting several interesting conclusions. When analyzing online grooming sentences there was no patron regarding offender’s profile, having a wide and changing modus operandi adapting to different victims. Differences were found when relating the gender of the victim and the modus operandi, in a strong trend that was found locally and globally. Differences were also found between the persuasive strategies and the possibilities of having a physical encounter. These results have important implications for prevention.
Regarding cyberbullying, it does not seem to exist specific offender and victim profiles concerning cyberbullying, with no significant differences between European countries and zones. The most frequent forms of cyber-bullying are described, resulting that in more than half of the cases sexual material was abused or shared. Although everybody can be subject to cyberbullying, disregarding race, ethnicity, or previous bad experiences, some elements regarding sexism, racism, and homophobia must be considered in terms of prevention.
Regarding human trafficking, the deliverable highlights the existence of mainly two forms of human trafficking in Europe. The first form is what is traditionally understood as human trafficking, in the sense that potential victims are forced into prostitution by offenders. This form of human trafficking was the predominant form in the Eastern part of Europe. However, a far more subtle form of human trafficking has been identified in the Western part of Europe: the “loverboy” phenomenon. This is a particularly concerning phenomenon, as the coercion applied in these cases is based on an emotional relationship between the offender and the victim, and thus merits special attention in the RAYUELA project.