D1.6 Victim and offender profile description report


The main objective of this deliverable is to interconnect all the information provided in the previous deliverables; literature review (D1.1), court sentence analysis (D1.4) and the interviews report (D1.2) to formulate indicators of precipitation to crime and risk factors for both: the victim and the offender. We will show a summary of the key findings and determining factors for young cybercrime victims and offenders by gathering all the information collected via RAYUELA’s research framework, semi-structured interviews and case studies. Although our findings show that it is not possible to build standard profiles for victims and offenders, we will develope the main risk and protective factor in online grooming (OG), cyberbullying (CB) and human trafficking for the purpose of sexual explotation (HT). Together with the variables and indicators and the descriptors that measure potential risk, we will also describe findings on the incidence, evolution, short and long-term consequences for victims and offenders post-attack. 

In relation to online grooming, the results obtained in the previous deliverables (D1.2 & D1.4) are consistent with literature review (D1.1). Firstly, we found similarities in terms of the sex and age of the victims, with a higher risk of being victimized between 13-14 years old and being a girl. Also we can highlight some risk factors that make young people more vulnerable to becoming victims. Some factors include: low self-esteem, poor family communication, sexual orientation, difficulty to make friends face to face, etc. Additionally, in the analysis of sentences and interviews we have been able to find persuasive strategies described in literature review, the most frequent being implication and deception. 

Secondly, regarding cyberbullying results, it can be said that previous deliverables (D1.2 & D1.4) are consistent with literature review (D1.1). Online bullying has increased significantly in the last decade as a result of the development of new technologies with victimization ranging around 20%. Minorities (regarding gender, sexual orientation, provenance, religion, even proficiency in sport, school etc.) have an extra risk of becoming targeted. Investigation has shown that loneliness, difficulties in making friends, school problems and low self-esteem are risk factors that raise victimization rates. Moreover, having a public profile and sharing a lot of personal information, sharing passwords or having passwords with low difficulty should also be taken into account in measuring victimization and making prevention plans. 

Thirdly, regarding human trafficking with the purpose of sexual explotation results (more precisely loverboys or Romeo pimps), it can be said that previous deliverables (D1.2 & D1.4) are consistent with literature review (D1.1). In general, no specific profiles could be found for neither victims nor offenders, but some common risk factors could be identified. For victims, the main risk factors is problems with attachment, which renders victims vulnerable to the seemingly sincere interest the offender shows in the her or him. Secondary risk factors included low self-esteem, low SES, impaired cognitive development and belonging to a cultural or sexual minority group. For offenders, the main risk factor included having negative views of women, having loose moral views on sex, low education, being without a job, and belonging to an ethnic minority. As to the modus operandi, deception is widely used, insofar as the offender seduces the victim into a (seemingly) loving relationship, thus making the victim dependent on the offender. Is is also precisly because of this that the problem of loverboys remains often undetected and is very difficult to prevent.